M.S., a 72-year-old white woman, comes to your clinic for a…

Question Answered step-by-step M.S., a 72-year-old white woman, comes to your clinic for a… M.S., a 72-year-old white woman, comes to your clinic for a complete physical examination. She has not been to a provider for 11 years because “I don’t like doctors.” Her only complaint today is “pain in my upper back.” She describes the pain as sharp and knifelike. The pain began approximately 3 weeks ago when she was getting out of bed in the morning and hasn’t changed at all. M.S. rates her pain as 6 on a 0- to 10-point pain scale and says the pain decreases to 3 or 4 after taking “a couple of ibuprofen.” She denies recent falls or trauma. M.S. admits she needs to quit smoking and start exercising but states, “I don’t have the energy to exercise, and besides, I’ve always been thin.” She has smoked one to two packs of cigarettes per day since she was 17 years old. Her last blood work was 11 years ago, and she can’t remember the results. She went through menopause at the age of 47 and has never taken hormone replacement therapy. The physical exam was unremarkable other than moderate tenderness to deep palpation over the spinous process at T7. No masses or tenderness to the tissue surrounded the tender spot. No visible masses, skin changes, or erythema were noted. Her neurologic exam is intact, and no muscle wasting is noted. 1.    The physician suspects osteoporosis. List seven risk factors associated with osteoporosis.2.    What diagnostic test is most commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis?3.    M.S.’s diagnostic test revealed a bone density T-score of -2.7. How will this be interpreted?4.    What nonpharmacologic interventions will you teach M.S. to prevent further bone loss?   Health Science Science Nursing Share QuestionEmailCopy link Comments (0)

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