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Some strains of E. coli cause UTI’s. To do so they must resist being flushed out of the body by the flow of urine. Which of the following would help with this? Hemolysin Enterotoxin Adhesin Collagenase Which type of vaccine poses any risk of causing a mild version of the disease against which it is formulated? Toxoid vaccine Inactivated whole agent vaccine (aka “killed” vaccine) Attenuated whole agent vaccine Conjugated vaccine Which of the following antibody detection tests methods would yield a positive result that looked like cell clumping? Precipitation ELISA Agglutination Fluorescent-antibody testing Which of the following are not true regarding viruses? They are smaller than bacteria They may not contain DNA Viruses can cause disease Viruses can be cultured on TSA plates The viral enzyme reverse transcriptase Makes DNA from RNA Makes RNA from DNA Translates mRNA Transcribes DNA and RNA The evolutionary relationship of organisms is called Taxonomy Identification Phylogeny Classification Which of the following is found in all three Domains and implies a shared ancestry? Nucleus Peptidoglycan rRNA mitochondria To make many copies of a single gene you would use.. Gel electrophoresis Nucleic acid sequencing PCR ELISA Access the MMWR to determine how many cases of foodborne botulism were reported to the CDC in 2011. 1,324 10,530 53,678 25, 596 Determining phylogeny between the genera Staphylococcus and Streptococcus by looking at their DNA similarity could be done with PCR Nucleic acid hybridization Observed morphology Phage typing If bacteria are multiplying in your bloodstream you have Sepsis Bacteremiz Viremic Toxemia The stage of disease during which signs, symptoms, and pathogen are gone is Prodrome Incubation period Convalescence Period of decline Chickenpox has a 10-14 day period during which no signs or symptoms appear but the individual is indeed infected and contagious. This is almost a 2-week… Prodromal period Incubation period Latent period Convalescent period Bubonic Plague, Lyme Disease and Malaria all have this in common Droplet transmission Soil-associated reservoir Fecal-oral transmission Biological vectors Bumblebees carry pollen from flower to flower, but also fungal spores that can kill many species of flowering plants. In this capacity the bee functions as.. A zoonotic vector A mechanical vector A biological vector A fomite Alicia’s throat cultures are regularly positive for Streptococcus pyogenes but she never develops strep throat because she is Vector Carrier Reservoir Convalescent Morbidity rates associated with infant tetanus are prevalent in Nigeria. This means many infants are sick with tetanus This means at any time you visit Nigeria you will see a large number of children sick with tetanus This means that a consistent number of infants succumb to tetanus in Nigeria This means that the rate of tetanus infection for infants is high right now in Nigeria Parasitic worm infections are endemic to New Guinea. This means.. you should be watchful if you visit because these parasites are always causing disease in the region You needn’t be worried about infection during a visit because you don’t live there Large numbers of locals are suddenly dying of parasitic worm infections Only people living in New Guinea need to worry about infection Which option below is in correct sequence (from largest to smallest) regarding public health services? CDC, WHO, WA state PHD, Seattle PHD, King County PHD King County PHD, Seattle PHD, WA state PHD, CDC, WHO WHO, CDC, WA state PHD, King County PHD, Seattle PHD WHO, CDC, Seattle PHD, King County PHD, WA state PHD If 87% of 1st graders are vaccinated for measles in Snohomish County which of the following is true? (video) Herd immunity will not be functioning as effectively as it could 87% of 1st graders will not develop autism Outbreaks of measles are unlikely Measles is endemic in Snohomish County The CDC does all of these except.. Collect data on notifiable diseases Release publications on the incidence and prevalence of disease in the U.S. Initiate public campaigns and outreach regarding disease transmission Provide health care to needy populations If you want to know whether your chewing tobacco habit will affect your chances of developing gum cancer, researching previously conducted ________________________ studies might help you make the decision to stop! Ecological Interventional Cohort Cross Sectional WHO is trying to eradicate polio virus from the planet. Humans are the only reservoir and the virus is transmitted in contaminated water. If polio can be prevented from infecting enough humans, the virus won’t be able to multiply and will disappear entirely. The best way to achieve this goal would be Initiate a global water sanitization campaign Initiate a global vaccination campaign Initiate a campaign to eliminate mosquitos since they breed in stagnant water Initiate global outreach & education regarding how polio is transmitted At your neighborhood 4th of July picnic you eat potato salad and begin to feel sick shortly after. After a bout of diarrhea and vomiting you recover and are still able to go to work the next day. You’ve experienced.. Food-borne infection Food allergy Viral gastroenteritis Food poisoning Bacteriophage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics is an encouraging possibility for all of the following reasons except.. (video) There is a very low side effect profile associated with phage therapy, if any Bacteria do not develop resistance to phage Phage formulations are inexpensive in comparison to antibiotics The FDA is comfortable patenting purified compounds vs. biological “cocktails” Matching: make the correct associations below and record your letter choice on scantron answer sheet (1pt ea) 26) measure of virulence a) mucous membrane 27) #1 portal of entry b) LD50 28) tissue penetration c) coagulase 29) blood clot formation d) collagenase 30) toxin potency e) ID50 31) endotoxin a) disrupt membranes 32) neurotoxin b) Salmonella typhi 33) enterotoxin c) Clostridium difficile 34) leukotoxin d) T-lymphocyte lysis 35) type II exotoxins e) gram (-) cell wall Fill in the blank: write your answer in the blank provided (1pt ea) 36) When bacteriophage enter a bacterium, immediately reproduce themselves, then burst from and destroy the host cell, we say they are exhibiting a _____________ life cycle. 37) _________________ viral life cycles are associated with chronic diseases that have long periods of latency; i.e. herpes. 38) Viral classification is based on 3 factors: morphology, method of replication, and type of ____________________. 39) The number of cell types that a virus can infect is known as its ________________ range. 40) Understanding the cause, or _______________, of a disease is equally important as understanding its pathogenesis. 41) A deep cut that has led to sepsis results in a disease that can be described as both ______________ and ____________________. 42) Ellen entered the hospital for a hip replacement and contracted pneumonia. The pneumonia is now considered a ______________________________ infection. 43) The relationship between gut-associated normal flora and you is both symbiotic and ________________________________. 44) After having a tooth pulled any gum infection caused by Streptococcus mutans would be considered _______________________________. 45) Five new cases of Pseudomonas infection in the ICU this month, versus only 1 last month, is an increase in _______________________. Short-answer questions: (5pts ea) 46) Compare and contrast antibiotic and bacteriophage therapies used to treat bacterial infections. Discuss the obstacles you anticipate regarding use of phage therapy in the U.S. * see video in Module 5 for ideas 47) Your neighbor has an autistic son and has told you that his initial symptoms appeared immediately following a bout of pediatric vaccinations at age 2. Should you avoid vaccinating your children too? Discuss the circulating myth that vaccinations cause autism and explain how this causative relationship has been disproven. *see videos in Module 4 for ideas 48) Six hospital workers have developed a case of MDR pneumonia in the last week at St. Joseph’s Hospital. All work in housekeeping and none are smokers or have any chronic respiratory issues. What would be the best type of epidemiological study to determine cause/source of infection? Justify your choice by discussing advantages associated with it. * see video Module 7 49) Diagram and describe the life cycle associated with the virus responsible for causing chickenpox/shingles. Explain the pathogenesis and treatment options. 50) Design a pathogen to be used as a biological weapon. Clearly state the reservoir, route of transmission, virulence factors, and disease progression associated with your design. Why is your design a good one, keeping in mind that such weapons are considered “good” when they kill large numbers of people quickly (yikes). 51) Explain how plasmid transfer among bacteria can affect virulence of a pathogen. Give and briefly explain 3 specific examples of virulence factors associated with plamids. 9
Help needed…Help needed…Help needed…
Some strains of E. coli cause UTI’s. To do so they must resist being flushed out of the body by the flow of urine. Which of the following would help with this? Hemolysin Enterotoxin Adhesin Collagenase Which type of vaccine poses any risk of causing a mild version of the disease against which it is formulated? Toxoid vaccine Inactivated whole agent vaccine (aka “killed” vaccine) Attenuated whole agent vaccine Conjugated vaccine Which of the following antibody detection tests methods would yield a positive result that looked like cell clumping? Precipitation ELISA Agglutination Fluorescent-antibody testing Which of the following are not true regarding viruses? They are smaller than bacteria They may not contain DNA Viruses can cause disease Viruses can be cultured on TSA plates The viral enzyme reverse transcriptase Makes DNA from RNA Makes RNA from DNA Translates mRNA Transcribes DNA and RNA The evolutionary relationship of organisms is called Taxonomy Identification Phylogeny Classification Which of the following is found in all three Domains and implies a shared ancestry? Nucleus Peptidoglycan rRNA mitochondria To make many copies of a single gene you would use.. Gel electrophoresis Nucleic acid sequencing PCR ELISA Access the MMWR to determine how many cases of foodborne botulism were reported to the CDC in 2011. 1,324 10,530 53,678 25, 596 Determining phylogeny between the genera Staphylococcus and Streptococcus by looking at their DNA similarity could be done with PCR Nucleic acid hybridization Observed morphology Phage typing If bacteria are multiplying in your bloodstream you have Sepsis Bacteremiz Viremic Toxemia The stage of disease during which signs, symptoms, and pathogen are gone is Prodrome Incubation period Convalescence Period of decline Chickenpox has a 10-14 day period during which no signs or symptoms appear but the individual is indeed infected and contagious. This is almost a 2-week… Prodromal period Incubation period Latent period Convalescent period Bubonic Plague, Lyme Disease and Malaria all have this in common Droplet transmission Soil-associated reservoir Fecal-oral transmission Biological vectors Bumblebees carry pollen from flower to flower, but also fungal spores that can kill many species of flowering plants. In this capacity the bee functions as.. A zoonotic vector A mechanical vector A biological vector A fomite Alicia’s throat cultures are regularly positive for Streptococcus pyogenes but she never develops strep throat because she is Vector Carrier Reservoir Convalescent Morbidity rates associated with infant tetanus are prevalent in Nigeria. This means many infants are sick with tetanus This means at any time you visit Nigeria you will see a large number of children sick with tetanus This means that a consistent number of infants succumb to tetanus in Nigeria This means that the rate of tetanus infection for infants is high right now in Nigeria Parasitic worm infections are endemic to New Guinea. This means.. you should be watchful if you visit because these parasites are always causing disease in the region You needn’t be worried about infection during a visit because you don’t live there Large numbers of locals are suddenly dying of parasitic worm infections Only people living in New Guinea need to worry about infection Which option below is in correct sequence (from largest to smallest) regarding public health services? CDC, WHO, WA state PHD, Seattle PHD, King County PHD King County PHD, Seattle PHD, WA state PHD, CDC, WHO WHO, CDC, WA state PHD, King County PHD, Seattle PHD WHO, CDC, Seattle PHD, King County PHD, WA state PHD If 87% of 1st graders are vaccinated for measles in Snohomish County which of the following is true? (video) Herd immunity will not be functioning as effectively as it could 87% of 1st graders will not develop autism Outbreaks of measles are unlikely Measles is endemic in Snohomish County The CDC does all of these except.. Collect data on notifiable diseases Release publications on the incidence and prevalence of disease in the U.S. Initiate public campaigns and outreach regarding disease transmission Provide health care to needy populations If you want to know whether your chewing tobacco habit will affect your chances of developing gum cancer, researching previously conducted ________________________ studies might help you make the decision to stop! Ecological Interventional Cohort Cross Sectional WHO is trying to eradicate polio virus from the planet. Humans are the only reservoir and the virus is transmitted in contaminated water. If polio can be prevented from infecting enough humans, the virus won’t be able to multiply and will disappear entirely. The best way to achieve this goal would be Initiate a global water sanitization campaign Initiate a global vaccination campaign Initiate a campaign to eliminate mosquitos since they breed in stagnant water Initiate global outreach & education regarding how polio is transmitted At your neighborhood 4th of July picnic you eat potato salad and begin to feel sick shortly after. After a bout of diarrhea and vomiting you recover and are still able to go to work the next day. You’ve experienced.. Food-borne infection Food allergy Viral gastroenteritis Food poisoning Bacteriophage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics is an encouraging possibility for all of the following reasons except.. (video) There is a very low side effect profile associated with phage therapy, if any Bacteria do not develop resistance to phage Phage formulations are inexpensive in comparison to antibiotics The FDA is comfortable patenting purified compounds vs. biological “cocktails” Matching: make the correct associations below and record your letter choice on scantron answer sheet (1pt ea) 26) measure of virulence a) mucous membrane 27) #1 portal of entry b) LD50 28) tissue penetration c) coagulase 29) blood clot formation d) collagenase 30) toxin potency e) ID50 31) endotoxin a) disrupt membranes 32) neurotoxin b) Salmonella typhi 33) enterotoxin c) Clostridium difficile 34) leukotoxin d) T-lymphocyte lysis 35) type II exotoxins e) gram (-) cell wall Fill in the blank: write your answer in the blank provided (1pt ea) 36) When bacteriophage enter a bacterium, immediately reproduce themselves, then burst from and destroy the host cell, we say they are exhibiting a _____________ life cycle. 37) _________________ viral life cycles are associated with chronic diseases that have long periods of latency; i.e. herpes. 38) Viral classification is based on 3 factors: morphology, method of replication, and type of ____________________. 39) The number of cell types that a virus can infect is known as its ________________ range. 40) Understanding the cause, or _______________, of a disease is equally important as understanding its pathogenesis. 41) A deep cut that has led to sepsis results in a disease that can be described as both ______________ and ____________________. 42) Ellen entered the hospital for a hip replacement and contracted pneumonia. The pneumonia is now considered a ______________________________ infection. 43) The relationship between gut-associated normal flora and you is both symbiotic and ________________________________. 44) After having a tooth pulled any gum infection caused by Streptococcus mutans would be considered _______________________________. 45) Five new cases of Pseudomonas infection in the ICU this month, versus only 1 last month, is an increase in _______________________. Short-answer questions: (5pts ea) 46) Compare and contrast antibiotic and bacteriophage therapies used to treat bacterial infections. Discuss the obstacles you anticipate regarding use of phage therapy in the U.S. * see video in Module 5 for ideas 47) Your neighbor has an autistic son and has told you that his initial symptoms appeared immediately following a bout of pediatric vaccinations at age 2. Should you avoid vaccinating your children too? Discuss the circulating myth that vaccinations cause autism and explain how this causative relationship has been disproven. *see videos in Module 4 for ideas 48) Six hospital workers have developed a case of MDR pneumonia in the last week at St. Joseph’s Hospital. All work in housekeeping and none are smokers or have any chronic respiratory issues. What would be the best type of epidemiological study to determine cause/source of infection? Justify your choice by discussing advantages associated with it. * see video Module 7 49) Diagram and describe the life cycle associated with the virus responsible for causing chickenpox/shingles. Explain the pathogenesis and treatment options. 50) Design a pathogen to be used as a biological weapon. Clearly state the reservoir, route of transmission, virulence factors, and disease progression associated with your design. Why is your design a good one, keeping in mind that such weapons are considered “good” when they kill large numbers of people quickly (yikes). 51) Explain how plasmid transfer among bacteria can affect virulence of a pathogen. Give and briefly explain 3 specific examples of virulence factors associated with plamids. 9

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