master level answer questions neuroscience – physiology

7 questions need to be answered in brief

the assignment is planned for a person with good understanding to answer them in 3 hours

but i will give more time to 4th april to be done

all the instructions and the questions are in the file attached

no copying graph and picture ,, can be hand drawing and scanned

master level answer questions neuroscience – physiology
Student Name_____________________________8 March 29, 2017 you should be able to complete the assignment in ~3 hours If you want to use hand drawn pictures that is fine, but then please scan them into the computer. . All text and images must be your own work, i.e. no cutting and pasting of text or images is allowed.It is also very important that you turn your exam in on time. While we expect to receive the exams on time, will list books that can be used for refrence books used for refrence: i) Fundamental Neuroscience; 4th edition, Eds. Squire et al.; Academic Press, 2012, (Links to an external site.) ii) From Molecules to Networks: An Introduction to Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience; 2nd edition, Eds. Byrne J & Roberts J; Academic Press, 2009. (Links to an external site.) iii) From Molecules to Networks: An Introduction to Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience; 3rd edition, Eds. Byrne et al.; Academic Press, 2014. (Links to an external site.) 1. Lecture C1,   A. A major type of cortical neuron is the pyramidal neuron. Based on what we discussed in class, explain how the shape of this neuronal type serves the primary function of the cortex in integrating information between different areas of the brain. B. Glial cells express and secrete many different proteins, the most abundant of which are the various apo-lipoproteins, lipid carrier proteins. Considering the role of astrocyte cells as neuronal nurse cells, why do you think this is so? C. “No two neurons are alike!” Yet there are adjacent neurons that express the same neurotransmitter, same receptor complement, project to the same area of the brain, etc. Why is this statement correct? 2. Lecture C2, Glycogen storage in the brain appears to be relatively low in comparison to liver.  Design an experiment to test the importance of glycogen utilization for energy production in the brain after ischemia. 3. Lecture C3, Students, please answer the questions asked. Do not tell me everything you know about synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis, but focus your answers on the questions asked. You may use original diagrams to illustrate your points, but do not cut and paste figures from the readings. AMembrane bending is a key requirement for synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Explain what molecules (describe at least 2 different types of proteins) are thought to be important for the promotion of membrane curvature during synaptic vesicle endocytosis, and describe their mechanism of action. If there are conflicting mechanistic models, explain all of them. Both synaptic vesicle exocytosis and synaptic vesicle endocytosis involve membrane fusion steps. B. Explain what membranes are fusing during synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and what mechanisms are used to overcome the energetic barrier to membrane fusion. Be sure to describe the specific molecular machinery that underlies this process. C. Explain what membranes are fusing during synaptic vesicle endocytosis, and what mechanisms are used to overcome the energetic barrier to membrane fusion (in addition to the promotion of membrane curvature as discussed in item A). Be sure to describe the specific molecular machinery that underlies this process. 4. Lecture C4,   A. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) poisoning results in Parkinsonism. What is the toxicity mechanism of MPTP? B. Oxidative stress is a contributing factor of Alzheimer’s disease. Use data to support this statement. 5. Lecture C5,   Describe the mechanism of action of benzodiazepines at GABAA receptors.  What is the allosteric ligand, what is the orthostatic ligand, and what are the consequences of them working separately versus in combination?  When benzodiazepines bind, what type of change occurs to the ion channel, what is the consequence to ion flux, and how does membrane potential change?  Based on the article covered in class, what GABAA receptor subtype is most likely involved in mediating the anti-anxiety effects of benzodiazepines and what are some of the experiments and their results that were used to conclude involvement of that receptor subtype?  Your answer needs to include binding data, electrophysiological data, AND behavioral data (i.e., all three!). 6. Lecture C6,    A. Describe the historical experiment that led to the first definitive proof of chemical transmission between a neuron and its target. B. Describe the biogenic amines, their locations of synthesis in the brain and their projection fields. Summarize the predominant functions of each biogenic amine. C. In the publications discussed, what was the key approach that allowed the authors to draw more definitive conclusions than with the studies conducted before? Summarize similarities and differences in how dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons in VTA and serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphe nuclei process reward versus punishment. 7. Lecture C7, * No more than one page for two answers (1 page limit). A.. How do synaptic vesicles, axolemmal precursors and mitochondria move down the axon? Describe the molecular machinery and the “hand-over-hand” mechanism of anterograde axonal transport (5pt), and provide one example of an axonal transport defect that is due to damage to an anterograde motor molecule (5pt). B.. How do anterograde motor molecules recognize their cargo proteins, for example mitochondria? Describe molecular sorting mechanisms that ensure delivery of mitochondria to specific membrane compartments (5pt). How does motor activity stop and then release mitochondria from the motor at the nerve terminal? (5pt)

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