Hello, are you able to proofread my paper for APA errors? I will…

Question Answered step-by-step Hello, are you able to proofread my paper for APA errors? I will… Hello, are you able to proofread my paper for APA errors? I will copy and paste it here. Thank you for your help! Introduction Failure to thrive is a broadly used expression that indicated a condition of substandard growth for age and gender, occurring in infants and young children (Lezo et al. 2020). The aim of this concept analysis is to define attributes of Failure to thrive (FTT) in infants and determine causes,  in order to develop nursing interventions and guidelines to care for patients. Failure to Thrive has been a concept since the 1930s, but being able to clearly define the idea still has not been accomplished (Ross et al. 2017) This is an important concept for nurses because it involves ensuring adequate care for patients. This concept encompasses nutrition, socioeconomic status, parental relations, psychosocial aspects, and others. By providing a more concrete definition with an understanding of antecedents and consequences, interventions can be made to help patients overcome this. Walker and Avant’s steps of Analyses (2019.)Walker & Avant’s model was used as the foundation for this concept analysis. Analysis of the literature provides an interpretation of the defining attributes of the concept, in turn differentiating between similar concepts and eliminating knowledge gaps.  Relevance to NursingThis concept is relevant to nursing in many different ways. Having guidelines and practices in place to care for patients is critical to ensuring positive patient and family outcomes. By understanding why and how a patient could be experiencing failure to thrive, nurses can be better advocates to make sure the patient and family receive the care they need. With a more concrete definition, proper care can be guaranteed.  Literature ReviewThe purpose of this literature review is to examine the literature for information regarding failure to thrive in infants, and how practicing nurses can care for those infants.  A review of the Nursing Literature was conducted using three key databases: CINAHL, PubMed and ProQuest. The following search terms were used: “Failure to Thrive”, “Infants”, Faltering Growth”. The search terms noted (yielded?) 210 results from 2000-2022. Continuing the search using different terms like faltering growth from 2017-2022 showed 593 results. Only references published in the last five years were reviewed. Other inclusion criteria for this literature review include peer-reviewed articles written in English, studying the human race. Articles that were excluded included study populations of adults and the elderly. Of the 410 articles found, 10 met the criteria for inclusion in this review.  Defining Attributes, Antecedents, and ConsequencesWalker & Avant’s model was used as the foundation for this concept analysis. Analysis of the literature provides an interpretation of the defining attributes of the concept, in turn differentiating between similar concepts and eliminating knowledge gaps. Walker & Avant (2019) describe defining attributes as a cluster of attributes that are most frequently associated with the concept and allow the analyst the broadest insight into the concept (p. 173). Failure to thrive can be described as a lack of adequate weight gain in pediatric-age patients (Smith & Badireddy, 2021), under-nutrition resulting in a growth deviation or faltering, regardless of the underlying cause (Ross et al. 2017), an abnormal growth pattern determined by inadequate nutrition (Lezo et al. 2020), disequilibrium between nutritional intakes and requirements of macro and micronutrients (Lezo et al. 2020), and a broadly used expression indicating a condition of substandard growth for age and gender in infants and young children (Lezo et al. 2020). It has also been described as an interruption in the normal pattern of growth (Selbuz et al. 2019), an abnormal pattern of weight gain defined by the lack of sufficient usable nutrition, documented by inadequate weight gain over time (Homan, 2016). Some terms to describe this concept include undernutrition, malnutrition, and faltering growth (Vachani, 2018). Raab (2021) describes the concept of failure to thrive as weight consistently below the third to fifth percentile for age and sex, progressive decrease in weight to below the third to fifth percentile, or a decrease in two major growth percentiles in a short period, with a cause that could be related to a medical condition or environmental factor, either way relating to inadequate nutrition. With these definitions, some distinguishing qualities of failure to thrive include inadequate weight gain, poor nutrition, and caloric intake insufficiency. Antecedents are described by Walker & Avant (2019) as events or incidents that must occur or be in place prior to the occurrence of the concept (p. 178). This concept has been associated with organic and nonorganic etiologies (Lezo et al. 2020). Organic FTT includes a medical condition responsible for malabsorption, decreased intake, and/or increased metabolism (Lezo et al. 2020). Nonorganic FTT is related to psychosocial or familial issues that result in inadequate intake (Lezo et al. 2020). With this in mind, antecedents of failure to thrive include:  swallowing abnormalities, oral aversions, congenital heart disease, feeding refusal, improper formula mixing, and parental neglect (Smith & Badireddy, 2021). Other antecedents could include postpartum depression in mothers, parental drug or alcohol abuse and neglect, food insecurity, improper feeding techniques, or chronic disorders that interfere with nutrition absorption such as cystic fibrosis and short gut syndrome (Ross et al. 2017). Walker & Avant (2019) define consequences as events or incidents that occur as a result of the occurrence of the concept, also known as the outcome of the concept )p. 178). Consequences of FTT can include: electrolyte imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, and can impair the development of cognitive skills and appropriate immune function, which can result in a failure to achieve developmental milestones and normal health (Homan, 2016).  Failure to thrive is an important concept for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) to be aware of. It is becoming more common that APRN’s are working as primary care providers, so it is their duty to be able to identify when this could be occurring in young children. Understanding antecedents of this concept may be important to resolve the problem. Oral aversion or swallowing abnormalities may take further testing to determine if that is the root cause. Improper formula mixing or feeding techniques will take more education and hands-on teaching with the family. Goal of treatment is to establish and maintain optimal growth velocity and guarantee adequate cognitive development (Lezo et al. 2020).  Limitations to this concept include infants who present with genetic short stature, prematurity, or intrauterine growth restriction (Ross et al. 2017). In order to properly measure growth, a growth chart needs to be used, plotted, and interpreted correctly (Ross et al. 2017). For that reason, growth data could be misinterpreted or inaccurate if there are deficiencies in the technical aspect of the chart, loss of follow-up appointments, and inaccuracy of measurements due to operational issues of the measuring equipment (Ross et al. 2017). In a cross-sectional study done on children who were referred to a gastroenterologist outpatient, the most common cause for referral was inadequate nutrition followed by psychiatric and behavioral disorders (Lezo et al. 2020). Taking an extensive family history of the patient and parents can offer some insight into what may be a cause of inadequate nutrition.  Case ExampleA model case is an example of the use of the concept that demonstrates all the defining attributes of the concept; one that is a pure case of the concept (Walker & Avant, 2019, p. 174). Debra is a first-time mom to a 3-month-old son Charlie. They are at the pediatrician’s office for his 3-month wellness check. The nurse notices that Charlie has dropped two major percentiles on his growth chart since the last visit. The nurse then asks mom about Charlie’s feeding schedule, and she responds by saying she has recently switched to formula because breastfeeding was becoming too much for her, and makes a comment on how expensive it is. When the nurse asked about how she mixes her formula, she noted that mom was only mixing half the amount of formula with the correct amount of water.ConclusionFailure to thrive is important to recognize and treat because it can potentially cause developmental delays and other long-term effects in the developing child (Smith & Badireddy, 2021). With proper guidelines in place, nurses will be able to easily identify when this is happening, and why. Knowing why failure to thrive may be occurring can give the nurse an idea of what resources the patient and family may need to start gaining weight, and maintain adequate growth.  References:  Franceschi, R., Rizzardi, C., Maines, E., Liguori, A., Soffiati, M., & Tornese, G. (2021). Failure to thrive in infant and toddlers: a practical flowchart-based approach in a hospital setting. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 47, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-021-01017-4 Homan G. J. (2016). Failure to Thrive: A Practical Guide. American family physician, 94(4), 295-299.  Lezo, A., Baldini, L., & Asteggiano, M. (2020). Failure to Thrive in the Outpatient Clinic: A New Insight. Nutrients, 12(8), 2202. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082202 Ross, E., Munoz, F. M., Edem, B., Nan, C., Jehan, F., Quinn, J., Mallett Moore, T., Sesay, S., Spiegel, H., Fortuna, L., Kochhar, S., Buttery, J., & Brighton Collaboration Failure to Thrive Working Group (2017). Failure to thrive: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of maternal immunisation safety data. Vaccine, 35(48 Pt A), 6483-6491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.01.051 Selbuz, S., Kırsaçlıoğlu, C. T., Kuloğlu, Z., Yılmaz, M., Penezoğlu, N., Sayıcı, U., Altuntaş, C., & Kansu, A. (2019). Diagnostic Workup and Micronutrient Deficiencies in Children With Failure to Thrive Without Underlying Diseases. Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 34(4), 581-588. https://doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10229 Smith AE, Badireddy M. Failure To Thrive. [Updated 2021 Aug 12]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459287/ Vachani, J. (2018). Failure to thrive: Early intervention mitigates long-term deficits. Contemporary Pediatrics. Retrieved February 27, 2022, from https://www.contemporarypediatrics.com/view/failure-thrive-early-intervention-mitigates-long-term-deficits  Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (2019). Strategies for theory construction in nursing. Pearson.  Health Science Science Nursing NSG 501 Share QuestionEmailCopy link Comments (0)

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